PLASTIC BOTTLE RESIN MATERIALS
Plastic bottles come in a variety of materials (resins). Plastic bottles
produced from HDPE material are the most common and least expensive. Plastic
bottles produced from PET material are crystal clear. Plastic jars produced
from PP material are resilient and economical. Plastic Jars made from
PS are clear.
This section provides a brief description of common plastic bottle resin
materials, their qualities, usages and limitations.
Bottles - High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
HDPE is the most widely used resin for plastic bottles. This material
is economical, impact resistant, and provides a good moisture barrier.
HDPE is compatible with a wide range of products including acids and caustics
but is not compatible with solvents. It is supplied in FDA approved food
Plastic Bottles made from HDPE are naturally translucent and flexible.
The addition of color will make HDPE bottles opaque although not glossy.
HDPE plastic bottles lend themselves readily to silk screen decoration.
While HDPE bottles provide good protection at below freezing temperatures,
they cannot be used with products filled at over 160° F or products
requiring a hermetic (vacuum) seal. HDPE is NOT suitable for use with
Bottles - Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
LDPE is similar to HDPE in composition. It is less rigid and generally
less chemically resistant than HDPE, but is more translucent. LDPE is
used primarily for squeeze applications. LDPE is significantly more expensive
Bottles - PET
Plastic Bottles made from Polyethylene Terephthalate are commonly used
for carbonated beverage bottles. PET provides very good alcohol and essential
oil barrier properties, generally good chemical resistance (although acetones
and ketones will attack PET) and a high degree of impact resistance and
tensile strength. The orienting process serves to improve gas and moisture
barrier properties and impact strength.
This material does not provide resistance to high temperature applications
-- max. temp. 160° F.
Bottles - Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Plastic Bottles made PVC are naturally clear, have extremely good resistance
to oils, and have very low oxygen transmission. PVC bottles provide an
excellent barrier to most gases and drop impact resistance is also very
good. This material is chemically resistant, but it is vulnerable to solvents.
PVC bottles are an excellent choice for salad oil, mineral oil, and vinegar.
It is also commonly used for shampoos and cosmetic products. PVC exhibits
poor resistance to high temperatures and will distort at 160° F, making
it incompatible with hot filled products
Jars - Polypropylene (PP)
Plastic jars made from polypropylene provide a rigid package with an excellent
One major advantage of polypropylene is its stability at high temperatures,
up to 200° F. Polypropylene bottles and jars are autoclavable and
offer the potential for steam sterilization. The compatibility of PP with
high filling temperatures is responsible for its use with hot fill products
such as pancake syrup.
PP bottles have excellent chemical resistance, but provide poor impact
resistance in cold temperatures
Jars - Polystyrene (PS)
Plastic jars made from styrene offer excellent clarity and stiffness at
an economical cost. These jars are commonly used with dry products including
vitamins, petroleum jellies, and spices. Styrene does not provide good
barrier properties, and exhibits poor impact resistance.
Plastic Bottles - Flourine Treated HDPE:
Bottles produced with a mixture of flourine gas and air, or exposed to
flourine gas in a secondary operation, are similar in appearance to HDPE
and have exceptional barrier properties to hydrocarbons and aromatic solvents.
Flourine treated hdpe plastic bottles also resist penetration by oxygen
and carbon dioxide.
Flourine treated plastic bottles are excellent for use with insecticides,
photographic chemicals, agricultural chemicals, household cleaners, waxes,
paint thinner and gasoline.
|Comparison of Bottle Polymer